Linguistic Anthropology

Linguistic Anthropology
 

Alessandro Duranti introduces linguistic anthropology as an interdisciplinary field that studies language as a cultural resource and speaking as a cultural practice. The theories and methods of linguistic anthropology are introduced through a discussion of linguistic diversity, grammar in use, the role of speaking in social interaction, the organization and meaning of conversational structures, and the notion of participation as a unit of analysis. Linguistic Anthropology will appeal to undergraduate and graduate students.

Table of contents :
Cover……Page 1
Half-title……Page 3
Series-title……Page 5
Title……Page 7
Copyright……Page 8
Dedication……Page 9
CONTENTS……Page 11
PREFACE……Page 17
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS……Page 21
1.1 Definitions……Page 25
1.2 The study of linguistic practices……Page 29
1.3 Linguistic anthropology and other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences……Page 34
1.3.1 Linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics……Page 37
1.4.1 Performance……Page 38
1.4.2 Indexicality……Page 41
1.4.3 Participation……Page 44
1.5 Conclusions……Page 45
2 Theories of culture……Page 47
2.1 Culture as distinct from nature……Page 48
2.2 Culture as knowledge……Page 51
2.2.1 Culture as socially distributed knowledge……Page 54
2.3.1 Lévi-Strauss and the semiotic approach……Page 57
2.3.2 Clifford Geertz and the interpretive approach……Page 60
2.3.3 The indexicality approach and metapragmatics……Page 61
2.3.4 Metaphors as folk theories of the world……Page 62
2.4 Culture as a system of mediation……Page 63
2.5 Culture as a system of practices……Page 67
2.6 Culture as a system of participation……Page 70
2.7 Predicting and interpreting……Page 71
2.8 Conclusions……Page 73
3 Linguistic diversity……Page 75
3.1.1 Franz Boas and the use of native languages……Page 76
3.1.2 Sapir and the search for languages’ internal logic……Page 80
3.1.3 Benjamin Lee Whorf, worldviews, and cryptotypes……Page 81
3.2 Linguistic relativity……Page 84
3.2.1 Language as objectification of the world: from von Humboldt to Cassirer……Page 86
3.2.2 Language as a guide to the world: metaphors……Page 88
3.2.3 Color terms and linguistic relativity……Page 89
3.2.4 Language and science……Page 91
3.3 Language, languages, and linguistic varieties……Page 93
3.4 Linguistic repertoire……Page 95
3.5.1 Speech community: from idealization to heteroglossia……Page 96
3.5.2 Multilingual speech communities……Page 100
3.5.3 Definitions of speech community……Page 103
3.6 Conclusions……Page 107
4.1 Ethnography……Page 108
4.1.1 What is an ethnography?……Page 109
4.1.1.1 Studying people in communities……Page 112
4.1.2 Ethnographers as cultural mediators……Page 115
4.1.3 How comprehensive should an ethnography be? Complementarity and collaboration in ethnographic research……Page 119
4.2 Two kinds of field linguistics……Page 122
4.3 Participant-observation……Page 123
4.4 Interviews……Page 126
4.4.1 The cultural ecology of interviews……Page 127
4.4.2 Different kinds of interviews……Page 130
4.5 Identifying and using the local language(s)……Page 134
4.6 Writing interaction……Page 137
4.6.1 Taking notes while recording……Page 139
4.7 Electronic recording……Page 140
4.7.1 Does the presence of the camera affect the interaction?……Page 141
4.8 Goals and ethics of fieldwork……Page 143
4.9 Conclusions……Page 145
5 Transcription: from writing to digitized images……Page 146
5.1 Writing……Page 147
5.2 The word as a unit of analysis……Page 150
5.2.1 The word as a unit of analysis in anthropological research……Page 153
5.2.2 The word in historical linguistics……Page 154
5.3 Beyond words……Page 156
5.4 Standards of acceptability……Page 158
5.5 Transcription formats and conventions……Page 161
5.6 Visual representations other than writing……Page 168
5.6.1 Representations of gestures……Page 169
5.6.2 Representations of spatial organization and participants’ visual access……Page 174
5.6.3 Integrating text, drawings, and images……Page 175
5.7 Translation……Page 178
Format I: Translation only…….Page 179
Format II. Original and subsequent (or parallel) free translation…….Page 180
Format IV. Original, interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme gloss, and free translation…….Page 182
5.8 Non-native speakers as researchers……Page 184
5.9 Summary……Page 185
6.1 The formal method in linguistic analysis……Page 186
6.2 Meaning as relations among signs……Page 188
6.3 Some basic properties of linguistic sounds……Page 190
6.3.1 The phoneme……Page 192
6.3.2 Emic and etic in anthropology……Page 196
6.4 Relationships of contiguity: from phonemes to morphemes……Page 198
6.5 From morphology to the framing of events……Page 202
6.5.1 Deep cases and hierarchies of features……Page 205
6.5.2 Framing events through verbal morphology……Page 212
6.5.3 The topicality hierarchy……Page 215
6.5.4 Sentence types and the preferred argument structure……Page 216
6.5.5 Transitivity in grammar and discourse……Page 217
6.6 The acquisition of grammar in language socialization studies……Page 221
6.7 Metalinguistic awareness: from denotational meaning to pragmatics……Page 223
6.7.1 The pragmatic meaning of pronouns……Page 226
6.8 From symbols to indexes……Page 228
6.8.1 Iconicity in languages……Page 229
6.8.2 Indexes, shifters, and deictic terms……Page 231
6.8.2.1 Indexical meaning and the linguistic construction of gender……Page 233
6.8.2.2 Contextualization cues……Page 235
6.9 Conclusions……Page 237
7 Speaking as social action……Page 238
7.1 Malinowski: language as action……Page 239
7.2 Philosophical approaches to language as action……Page 242
7.2.1 From Austin to Searle: speech acts as units of action……Page 243
7.2.1.1 Indirect speech acts……Page 250
7.3 Speech act theory and linguistic anthropology……Page 251
7.3.1 Truth……Page 253
7.3.2 Intentions……Page 255
7.3.3 Local theory of person……Page 257
7.4 Language games as units of analysis……Page 260
7.5 Conclusions……Page 267
8 Conversational exchanges……Page 269
8.1 The sequential nature of conversational units……Page 271
8.1.1 Adjacency pairs……Page 274
8.2 The notion of preference……Page 283
8.2.1 Repairs and corrections……Page 285
8.2.2 The avoidance of psychological explanation……Page 287
8.3 Conversation analysis and the “context” issue……Page 288
8.3.1 The autonomous claim……Page 291
8.3.2 The issue of relevance……Page 295
8.4 The meaning of talk……Page 299
8.5 Conclusions……Page 301
9 Units of participation……Page 304
9.1 The notion of activity in Vygotskian psychology……Page 305
9.2 Speech events: from functions of speech to social units……Page 308
9.2.1 Ethnographic studies of speech events……Page 314
9.3.1 Participant structure……Page 318
9.3.2 Participation frameworks……Page 319
9.3.3 Participant frameworks……Page 331
9.4 Authorship, intentionality, and the joint construction of interpretation……Page 338
9.5 Participation in time and space: human bodies in the built environment……Page 345
9.6 Conclusions……Page 352
10.1 Language as the human condition……Page 355
10.2 To have a language……Page 356
10.3 Public and private language……Page 358
10.4 Language in culture……Page 360
10.5 Language in society……Page 361
10.6 What kind of language?……Page 362
Getting ready……Page 364
Recording tips for audio equipment……Page 365
Tapes (for audio and video recording)……Page 366
3. Where to place the camera……Page 368
REFERENCES……Page 372
NAME INDEX……Page 411
SUBJECT INDEX……Page 417